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RE: The Thule Society

Where did the Idea Of Thule Come From.....

Was It The Egyptian Dynastic Kingship Text The The RCC Learned and
Use Today?

Was The Creation Of The Jesuits Because Of The Occult Knowledge
Learned From The Egyptian Text?

Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus.


Thule or Tile is in classic sources a place, usually an island, in the far north, often Scandinavia. Ultima Thule in medieval geographers may also denote any distant place located beyond the "borders of the known world".

It was first mentioned by the Greek geographer and explorer Pytheas of Massalía (present-day Marseille) in the 4th century BC. Pytheas claimed that Thule was six days north of the island of Great Britain, and that the midsummer sun never set there. Thule is sometimes seen to have some commonality with Atlantis. The most likely locale for Thule is nowadays considered to be the coast of Norway; other historians think it was the Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands or Iceland, however.

In Procopius, Thule was a large island in the north inhabited by 25 tribes. It is clearly Scandinavia since several tribes are easily identified, such as the Geats (Gautoi) and the Saami (Scrithiphini). He also wrote that when the Heruls returned, they passed the Varni and the Danes and then crossed the sea to Thule, where they settled beside the Geats.

Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, the name was sometimes used to denote Iceland, such as by Bremen's Deeds of Bishops of the Hamburg Church, where he probably cites old writers' usage of Thule.

Modern use
Nazi mystics hunted all over the world for a historical Thule, which they believed was the ancient homeland of the Aryan race.

A settlement in Greenland was named Thule after the old tradition. This led to the ironic and somewhat confusing naming of the Asiatic "Thule People," the proto-culture of the modern-day Eskimo/Inuit peoples. This settlement's name was later changed to Qaanaaq. Hunting activities here are described in the January 2006 National Geographic. This settlement lies 67 miles north of the long-existing Thule military air base operated by USAF; owned by Denmark. (76 31'50.21"N, 68 42'36.13"W only 840 NM from the North Pole)

The name of Cthulhu, the tentacle-headed monster in H.P. Lovecraft's story The Call of Cthulhu, may also be derived from Thule. [citation needed]

Ultima Thule is also the name of a Swedish rock band.

Thule is a company that manufactures Roof Boxes, Cycle & Ski Carriers etc.

In the comic strip Prince Valiant, the title character is said to be the "Prince of Thule".

In the spanish comic strip Capitán Trueno, the girlfriend of the protagonist is a viking princess born in Thule.

Vladimir Nabokov worked on a story entitled Ultima Thule, aspects of which eventually came to be essential parts of his novel Pale Fire.

See also
Aristeas Another Greek voyage to the far north.
Phantom island
Thule Society
Retrieved from ""
Categories: Articles lacking sources | Greek mythology | Nazism | Occult


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Olaus Magnus
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Olaus Magnus, or Magni (Magnus, Latin for the Swedish Stora -- great -- is the family name, and not a personal epithet), reported as born in October 1490 in Linköping, and died on August 1, 1557, was a Swedish ecclesiastic and writer, who did pioneering work for the interest of Nordic people.

Like his elder brother, Johannes Magnus, he obtained several ecclesiastical preferments. Among them a canonry at Uppsala and Linköping, and the archdeaconry of Strängnäs. He was furthermore employed on various diplomatic services, such as a mission to Rome, on behalf of Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa), to procure the appointment of Johannes Magnus as archbishop of Uppsala. However, on the success of the reformation in Sweden his attachment to the Catholic church forced him to accompany his brother into exile.

Settling at Rome, from 1527, he acted as his brother's secretary. At Johannes death in 1544, he ultimately became his successor as Archbishop of Uppsala, admittedly nothing more than a title, as he never could return to Sweden. Pope Paul III in 1546, sent him to the council of Trent; later, he became canon of St Lambert in Liège. King Sigismund I of Poland offered him a canonry at Posen, but most of his life, after his brother's death, seems to have been spent in the monastery of St Brigitta in Rome, where he subsisted on a pension assigned him by the pope.


Dwarfes fighting Cranes in northern SwedenHe is best remembered as the author of the famous Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (History of the Northern People), printed in Rome 1555, a work which long remained for the rest of Europe the authority on Swedish matters. Its popularity increased by the many small sketches of people and their customs, amazing the rest of Europe. It was translated into Italian (1565), German (1567), English (1658) and Dutch (1665). Abridgments of the work appeared also at Antwerp (1558 and 1562), Paris (1561), Amsterdam (1586), Frankfort (1618) and Leiden (1652). It is still today a valuable repertory of much curious information in regard to Scandinavian customs and folk-lore .

Carta marinaFollowing the death of his brother, he also let publish those historical works he had written. Olaus had already earlier written Carta marina et Descriptio septemtrionalium terrarum ac mirabilium rerum in eis contentarum, diligentissime elaborata Anno Domini 1539 Veneciis liberalitate Reverendissimi Domini Ieronimi Quirini, which translates as "A Marine map and Description of the Northern Lands and of their Marvels, most carefully drawn up at Venice in the year 1539 through the generous assistance of the Most Honourable Lord and Patriarch Hieronymo Quirino" (Lynam 1949, 3).

It included a map of Northern Europe with a map of Scandinavia, which was rediscovered in the 19th century and shown to be the most accurate depiction of its time. The map is referred to as "carta marina", and consists of 9 parts, and is remarkably large: 125 cm high and 170 cm wide.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Historia de gentibus septentrionalibusThis article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.
(sv) article Olaus Magni Nordisk familjebok
Carta Marina James Bell Ford Library, Minnesota
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Categories: Swedish people | 1490 births | 1557 deaths | 1911 Britannica


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Society of Jesus 

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The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu/Jesu (S.J.) in Latin) is a Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. Its members, known as Jesuits since the Protestant Reformation, have been called "Footsoldiers of the Pope" in part because the Society's founder, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a soldier before he began to follow God as a monk and eventually a priest. Today, Jesuits number over 20,000 and comprise the largest religious order in the Catholic Church. Jesuit priests and brothers are engaged in ministries in 112 nations on six continents. Their work is focused on education and intellectual contributions, primarily at colleges and universities, as well as missionary work and ministry in human rights and social justice.

The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is led by a Superior General, presently Peter Hans Kolvenbach. The General Curia of the Society is headquartered in Rome. Its historic complex of buildings includes the Church of the Gesu, the Jesuit Mother Church.

Contents [hide]
1 Foundation
1.1 The name "Jesuit"
2 Early works
3 Expansion
4 Suppression and Restoration
5 Jesuits today
6 Controversies
7 Famous Jesuits
8 Jesuit institutions
9 Jesuit buildings
10 See also
11 External links
11.1 Jesuit Documents
11.2 Sites
11.3 Media


Saint Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of JesusOn August 15, 1534, Ignatius (born Iñigo López de Loyola) and six other students (Francis Xavier, a fellow Basque, Alfonso Salmeron, James Lainez, and Nicholas Bobadilla, Spaniards, Peter Faber from France and Simon Rodrigues, a Portuguese) met in Montmartre outside Paris, probably near the modern Chapel of St Denys, Rue Antoinette, and binding themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, founded the Society of Jesus – to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct".

In 1537 they travelled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. They were ordained at Venice by the bishop of Arbe (June 24). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy, as the renewed war between the emperor, Venice, the pope and the Ottoman Empire rendered any journey to Jerusalem inadvisable.

With Faber and Lainez, Ignatius made his way to Rome in October 1538, to have the pope approve the constitution of the new order. A congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis (September 27, 1540), but limited the number of its members to sixty. This limitation was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis (March 14, 1543). Ignatius was chosen as the first superior-general. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.

Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a monarchical organization and stressed absolute self-abnegation and obedience to Pope and superiors (perinde ac cadaver, "[well-disciplined] like a corpse" as Ignatius put it). His main principle became the unofficial Jesuit motto: Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam ("for the greater glory of God"). This phrase is designed to reflect the idea that any work that is not evil can be meritorious for the spiritual life if it is performed with this intention, even things considered normally indifferent.

The Society of Jesus is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support.

The name "Jesuit"
The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the Society in reproach (1544-52), and was never employed by its founder, though members and friends of the Society in time accepted the name in its positive meaning.

Early works

Ratio Studiorum, 1598The Jesuits were founded just before the Counter-Reformation, a movement whose purpose was to reform the Roman Catholic Church from within and to counter the Protestant Reformers, whose teachings were spreading throughout Catholic Europe. As part of their service to the Roman Church, the Jesuits encouraged people to continue their obedience both to scripture and also Roman Catholic doctrine. Ignatius himself used hyperbole when he wrote the following sentence:

"I will believe that the white that I see is black if the hierarchical Church so defines it."
But his hyperbole relativizes propositional claims defined by the hierarchical Church. For him, the important things in life are not propositional definitions, but the spiritual movements within oneself.

Ignatius and the early Jesuits did recognize, though, that the hierarchical Church was in dire need of reform, and some of their greatest struggles were against the corruption, venality, and spiritual lassitude within the Roman Catholic Church. As a result, in spite of their loyalty, Ignatius and his successors often tangled with the pope and the Roman Curia. Over the 450 years since its founding, the Society has both been called the papal "elite troops" and been forced into suppression.

St. Ignatius and the Jesuits who followed him believed that the reform of the Church had to begin with the conversion of an individual’s heart. One of the main tools the Jesuits have used to bring about this conversion has been the Ignatian retreat, called the Spiritual Exercises. During a four-week period of silence, individuals undergo a series of directed meditations on the life of Christ. During this period, they meet regularly with a spiritual director, who helps them understand whatever call or message God has offered in their meditations. The retreat follows a Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive pattern in the tradition of the mysticism of John Cassian and the Desert Fathers. Ignatius' innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life, and to use it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the Church.

The Jesuits’ contributions to the late Renaissance were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. By the time of Ignatius' death in 1556, the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education, the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought. In addition to teaching faith, the Ratio Studiorum emphasized the study of Latin, Greek, classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences and the arts. Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature and rhetoric, and thereby became important centers for the training of lawyers and public officials. The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland. Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world.

Following the Roman Catholic tradition that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of "finding God in all things", many early Jesuits distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music.

The Jesuits were able to obtain significant influence in the Early Modern Period because Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to the Kings of the time. They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure (without the requirements of living in community, saying the divine office together, etc.) allowed them to be flexible to meet the needs of the people at the time.


Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana in Paraguay, one of the many Jesuit missions established in South America during the 17th and 18th centuriesEarly missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in 1580. This was removed in 1587, however, due to fears over their growing influence.

Francis Xavier arrived in Goa, in Western India in 1541 to consider evangelical service in the Indies. He passed away after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. Under Portuguese royal patronage, the order thrived in Goa and until 1759 successfully expanded its activities to education and healthcare. On 17 December 1760, Marquis of Pombal, Secretary of State in Portugal expelled the Jesuits from India.

Two Jesuit missionaries, Gruber and D'Orville, reached Lhasa in Tibet in 1661.

Jesuit missions in Latin America were very controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal, where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Indians and slavery. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay they formed Christian-Indian city-states, called "reductions" (Spanish Reducciones). These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. It is partly because the Jesuits protected the Indians whom certain Spanish and Portuguese colonizers wanted to enslave that the Society of Jesus was suppressed.

Jesuit priests such as Manoel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded several towns in Brazil in the 16th century, including São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion and education of Indian nations

Jesuit mission in China brought about the Chinese Rites controversy in the early 18th century.

Jesuit scholars working in these foreign missions to the "heathens" were very important in understanding their unknown languages and strived for producing Latinicized grammars and dictionaries, the first organized efforts at linguistics. This was done, for instance, for Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam, a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written 1603) and Tupi-Guarani (a language group of South American aborigines).

Suppression and Restoration

Boston College was among the first universities to open after the Restoration of the Jesuits in North America. Today it is the flagship of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and home to the world's largest Jesuit communitySee article Suppression of the Jesuits
The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was troubling to the Society's defender, Pope Clement XIII. Following a decree signed by Pope Clement XIV in July 1773, the Jesuits were suppressed in all countries except Russia, where Catherine the Great had forbidden the papal decree to be promulgated. Because millions of Catholics (including many Jesuits) lived in the Polish western provinces of the Russian Empire, the Society was able to maintain its legal existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression.

The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits in 1814 was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century. In the United States, 22 of the Society's 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits during this time. Some claim that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits upon restoration. While this claim is debatable, Jesuits were generally supportive of Papal authority within the Church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility in 1870.

The 20th century witnessed both aspects of growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the 1950s and have declined steadily since. Meanwhile the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a later 20th century focus on establishing of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas. Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray, SJ, was called one of the "architects of the Second Vatican Council" and drafted what eventually became the council's endorsement of religious freedom,Dignitatis Humanae Personae.

Jesuits today
The Jesuits today represent the largest religious order in the Catholic Church, with over 20,000 members serving in 112 nations on six continents. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Peter Hans Kolvenbach. The Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines and India. In the United States alone, it maintains over 50 colleges, universities and high schools. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning and life-long spiritual and intellectual growth.[1] In Latin America, Jesuits have had significant influence in the development of liberation theology, a movement which has been highly controversial in the Catholic theological community, condemned by Pope John Paul II on several fundamental aspects.

Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe, social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits. Nearly a decade after the assassination of Bishop Oscar Romero, on November 16, 1989, six Jesuit priests – Ignacio Ellacuria, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martin-Baro, Joaquin Lopez y Lopez, Juan Ramon Moreno, and Amado Lopez – their housekeeper, Elba Ramos, and her daughter, Celia Marisela Ramos, were murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador. Due to their unwavering defense of the poor, they had been labeled as subversives by the Salvadorian government. The assassinations galvanized the Society's peace and justice movements, including annual protests at the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation at Fort Benning, Georgia, where the assassins were trained under US government sponsorship.

In 2002, Boston College president William P. Leahy, SJ, initiated the Church in the 21st Century program as a means of moving the Church "from crisis to renewal." The initiative has provided the Society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal, including the priesthood, celibacy, sexuality, women's roles, and the role of the laity.

In April 2005, Thomas J. Reese, SJ, editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America, resigned at the request of the Society. The move was widely published in the media as the result of pressure from the Vatican, following years of criticism by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on articles touching subjects such as HIV/AIDS, religious pluralism, homosexuality and the right of life for the unborn. Reese is currently on a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University.

The Jesuits have frequently been described by Catholic and Protestant enemies as engaged in various conspiracies. They have also been accused of using casuistry to obtain justifications for the unjustifiable. In several languages, "Jesuit" or "Jesuitical" therefore acquired a secondary meaning of "devious." The Jesuits have also been targeted by many anti-Catholics like Jack Chick, Avro Manhattan, and Alberto Rivera. Among other things they point to the text of an extreme oath allegedly taken by advanced members of the order, which can be construed to justify any action including infiltration of other faiths as legitimate in the name of the "greater good." The Jesuits have been accused of murdering Popes and presidents, causing wars, and toppling governments. There is also a claim common among many anti-Catholics that the Jesuit Superior General rules the Vatican behind the scenes.

Within the Catholic Church, some Jesuits are criticized by some parties for being overly liberal and deviating substantially from official Church teaching and papal directives, especially on such issues as abortion, priestly celibacy, homosexuality, and liberation theology. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Pope Benedict XVI, like his predecessor John Paul II, has been particularly critical of the order. [10] Indeed, it is not unusual, especially in more conservative Catholic outlets, to hear calls for the outright abolishment of the Jesuit order. Thus, some may argue that the future influence of the Jesuits in the Catholic community, and perhaps their very existence, remains uncertain, while others may note that the Jesuit Order is well established in the Church and the communities where they intervene.

Famous Jesuits

Robert Bellarmine
Robert Drinan
John Courtney Murray
Walter Ong
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
Peter ClaverAmong many distinguished early Jesuits was St. Francis Xavier, a missionary to Asia who converted more people to Catholicism than anyone in Catholic history before him.

Other famous Jesuits include:

Abbé Augustin Barruél, French writer
St. Alberto Hurtado, Chilean social reformer
Alessandro Valignano, Italian Jesuit, missionary to Japan and East Asia
Alexandre de Rhodes, missionary to Vietnam
Alfred Delp, German Jesuit hanged for his opposition to Hitler
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
Amando López
St. Andrew Bobola , Polish Missionary, killed by the Cossacks
Anthony de Mello, controversial Indian Spiritual Writer
Antonio Vieira, (1608-1697), missionary and diplomat.
Athanasius Kircher
Avery Dulles, American theologian and cardinal
Bernard Lonergan, Canadian philosopher and theologian
Catalino Arevalo, hailed by the late Jaime Cardinal Sin as the "dean of Filipino theologians"
Daniel Berrigan, American Political Activist
Edmund A. Walsh, founder of the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
St. Edmund Campion, English martyr
Eusebio Francisco Kino
Father Leonard Feeney, Controversial Ultra-Conservative American Jesuit
Ferdinand Verbiest, Belgian missionary to China
Francois d'Aguillon, Belgian Mathematician and Physicist
Frans Jozef van Beeck, theologian
Frederick Copleston, English writer of a definative History of Western Philosophy (vol 1-12)
Gerard Manley Hopkins, renowned English poet
Gian Paolo Oliva, General of the Order, 1664–1681
Giovanni Botero, Italian thinker, discharged from the Society in 1579
Giulio Alenio, Italian Missionary to China, "Confucius of the West"
Giuseppe Castiglione, artist to Chinese Emperor
Heiner Geißler,
St. Henry Garnett, First English Provincial, executed after being falsely implicated in the 'Gunpowder Plot'
Horacio De La Costa Philippine historian and the first Filipino Jesuit provincial superior in the Philippines
Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian mathematician and Astronomer
Ignacio Ellacuría, Rector of University of Central America, El Salvador - shot dead in 1989
Ignacio Martín-Baró
Jacques Courtois, French Painter in 17th Century
Jacques Dupuis, Belgian theologian and expert on Inter-Religious Dialogue and Theology of Religions
Jacques Marquette
Jaime Bulatao, professor of psychology at Ateneo de Manila University in the Philippines, considered as the father of "Filipino psychology"
Jakob Balde, German latinist, court chaplain to Maximillian I
James Reuter, considered as the father of Catholic mass communications in the Philippines
Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, French Missionary to China
Jeremiah Delgado
Joaquín López y López
Johann Adam Schall von Bell, missionary to China
St. John Berchmans, Jesuit Seminarian from Belgium
John Carroll, first bishop of the United States
John Courtney Murray, drafter of the Second Vatican Council
John Dear, American Jesuit Peace Activist and Spiritual Author
John II Casimir Vasa, king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
John O'Sullivan, Irish ascetic
José de Acosta, Spanish Historian,Natural and Moral History of the Indies
José de Anchieta, founder of Sao Paulo, Brazil
St. José María Rubio, Spanish Jesuit, canonised by the late Pope John Paul II in 2003
José María Vélaz, founder of Fe y Alegria.
Juan Andres, Prolific 18th Century Spanish Writer
Juan Ramón Moreno
Karl Rahner, one of the most significant 20th century theologians
Leonardus Lessius, Flemish moral theologian and writer on economics
Louis Bourdaloue, French Preacher and Orator
Louis Maimbourg
Luis Frois, Portugese Missionary to Japan, wrote History of Japan
Manoel da Nóbrega, Portuguese Jesuit, founder of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Matteo Ricci, famed missionary to China
Michel de Certeau, French Cultural Theorist
Oswald von Nell-Breuning
Pedro Arrupe, Former Superior General of the Society
St. Peter Claver, Saint to the Slave Ships in South America
Peter Faber, Highly Esteemed companion of Ignatius, Apostle of Germany
St. Petrus Canisius, Doctor of the Church
Petrus Josephus Zoetmulder, an expert in the Old Javanese language and literature
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, French paleontologist and spiritual writer
St. Robert Bellarmine, a Doctor of the Catholic Church
Robert Drinan, only Catholic priest ever to serve in the US Congress [11]
Roberto de Nobili, missionary to India
Romeo Intengan, Philippine Jesuit, former Provincial, and surgeon by training, jailed during the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos for his views against the dictatorship
Roque Ferriols, Filipino philosopher
Saint Roque González de Santa Cruz, Paraguayan missionary, martyr
Ruđer Josip Bošković (aka Roger Boscovich), Croatian atomic physicist, forerunner of Faraday
Segundo Montes
Thomas Ewing Sherman, son of a US Civil War Union Army Major General William T. Sherman
Walter J. Ong, American cultural historian and spiritual writer
Xabier Arzalluz, Spanish Basque leader, later left the Society
See also: the Canadian Martyrs and Jesuit China missions
^ Note: Father Gabriel Richard briefly was in the US Congress in the 1820s, but as a territorial representative. Under guidelines released by Pope John Paul II, Catholic clergy are expected not to serve in positions of civil authority.

Jesuit institutions
Main article: List of Jesuit institutions
Jesuits have founded and/or managed a number of institutions, notably universities, which have produced many well-known alumni.

The most prominent of these universities are in the United States where they are organized as the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. In Latin America they are organized in the Asociación de Universidades Confiadas a la Compañía de Jesús en América Latina (Association of Universities Entrusted to the Jesuits in Latin America).

In the Philippines, the Jesuit universities are grouped under the Jesuit University System in the Philippines. The system groups Ateneo de Manila University, Ateneo de Naga University, Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, Ateneo de Zamboanga University and Ateneo de Davao University. An affiliated grouping, Mindanao Consortium of Ateneo Universities, groups all of the Jesuit universities located in Mindanao island with the purpose of promoting Muslim-Christian unity and dialogue as well as to exchange knowledge and expertise in various academic fields.

Jesuit buildings

Ruins of St Paul's Cathedral, Macau, one of many cathedrals built by the Jesuits in Asia during the 16th and 17th centuriesMany buildings and ruins give witness to the order's construction activity world-wide. Among these are:

Ruins of Saint Paul's Cathedral in Macau
Ruins of San Ignacio Church in the Philippines
Basilica of Bom Jesus near Panaji, Goa in India
Church of the Gesu in Rome, Italy
Ateneo de Manila University Church of the Gesu in the Philippines
La Santisima Trinidad de Parana in Paraguay
See also
Superior General of the Society of Jesus
Acta Sanctorum
Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities
Brebeuf College School
Catholicism in China
Catholicism in Japan
Jesuit Ivy
Jesuit pre-modern China missions
Laying on of hands
Madonna Della Strada
Misiones Province, Argentina
Ratio Studiorum
External links

Church of the Gesu, motherchurch of the Society of Jesus in Rome[edit]
Jesuit Documents
The Jesuit Ratio Studiorum of 1599
The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan, 1591-1610
Letter of the Jesuit Social Justice Secretariat to the leaders of the G8, July 2005
J.H. Pollen, "The Jesuits (Society of Jesus)" in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1912)
Jesuit University system in the Philippines
Jesuits in Canada
Jesuits in the Philippines
United States Jesuit Conference
Jesuit Volunteers of America
Jesuit Refugee Service
Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities
Jesuits in the United Kingdom
Jesuits in Ireland
Jesuits in Indonesia
Jesuits in Australia
Jesuits in South Africa
The Mission(Movie): The Mission is a 1986 film which tells the story of a Spanish Jesuit priest who goes into the South American jungle to convert the Native Americans, who must defend his charges against the cruelty of Portuguese colonials.
Sacred Space: famous Jesuit prayer site, in 18 different languages, maintained by Jesuits of the Irish Province
Global Catholic Statistics: 1905 and Today by Albert J. Fritsch, SJ, PhD
Documentary by the Society of Jesus Province of Chicago (Windows Media Player)
Contemporary Jesuits speak about their vocations, the vows, and the mission of the Society of Jesus (Real Player)

Catholic Order
Adorers ♰ Adornos ♰ Assumptionists ♰ Atonement, Society of the ♰ Augustinians ♰ Baladites ♰ Barnabites ♰ Basilians ♰ Benedictines ♰ Bernardines ♰ Bethany Ashram ♰ Bridgettines ♰ Brothers of Christian Instruction of St Gabriel ♰ Brothers of the Christian Schools ♰ Brothers of Mercy of Our Lady of Perpetual Help ♰ Camaldolese ♰ Camillians ♰ Canossians ♰ Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem ♰ Capuchins ♰ Carmelites ♰ Carmelites of Mary Immaculate ♰ Carthusians ♰ Celestines ♰ Cistercians ♰ Claretians ♰ Columbans ♰ Congregatio Fratrum Cellitarum seu Alexianorum ♰ Congregatio Immaculatae Cordis Mariae ♰ Congregation of the Disciples of the Lord ♰ Congregation of Holy Cross ♰ Congregation of Notre Dame ♰ Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary ♰ Conventual Franciscans ♰ Christian Brothers of Ireland ♰ Crosiers ♰ Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul ♰ Dehonians ♰ Divine Word Missionaries ♰ Discalced Carmelites ♰ Dominicans ♰ Dottrinari ♰ Eudists ♰ Franciscan Brothers of Brooklyn ♰ Franciscan ♰ Franciscan Missionaries of Divine Motherhood ♰ Franciscan Missionaries of Mary ♰ Franciscan Friars of the Third Order Regular ♰ Fransalians ♰ Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart ♰ Good Shepherd Sisters ♰ Handmaids of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity ♰ Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus ♰ Holy Cross Fathers ♰ Order of Hospitalers ♰ Infant Jesus Sisters ♰ Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest ♰ Jesuits ♰ Josephines of Asti ♰ Josephite Fathers and Brothers ♰ Lazarists ♰ Legionaries of Christ ♰ Little Brothers of the Good Shepperd ♰ Little Sisters of the Poor ♰ Loreto Sisters ♰ Marian Fathers ♰ Marianists ♰ Marianist_Sisters ♰ Marists ♰ Marist Brothers ♰ Maryknoll ♰ Mercedarians ♰ Missionaries of Charity ♰ Missionaries of the Sacred Heart ♰ Norbertines or Premonstratensians ♰ Olivetans ♰ Oblates Of Mary Immaculate ♰ Oblate Sisters of Providence ♰ Oratory of Saint Philip Neri ♰ Order of St. Elisabeth ♰ Pallottines ♰ Paris Foreign Missions Society ♰ Passionists ♰ Paulists ♰ Piarists ♰ Poor Clares ♰ Presentation Brothers ♰ Presentation Sisters ♰ Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter ♰ Redemptorists ♰ Religious of the Cenacle ♰ Resurrectionists ♰ Rogationist ♰ Rosminians ♰ Sacramentines ♰ Salesians of St. John Bosco ♰ Salevian Sisters ♰ Salvatorians ♰ Scalabrians ♰ School Sisters of Notre Dame ♰ Servites ♰ Sisters of Charity ♰ Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary ♰ Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary ♰ Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary ♰ Sisters of Mercy ♰ Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur ♰ Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy ♰ Sisters of St Joseph ♰ Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart ♰ Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (IHM) ♰ Society of the Precious Blood ♰ Society of St. Paul ♰ Spiritans ♰ Stigmatines ♰ Sulpician Fathers ♰ Theatines ♰ Trappists ♰ Trinitians ♰ Ursulines ♰ Verbum Dei ♰ Viatorians ♰ Vincentians ♰ Vocationists ♰ Xaverians

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Category: Society of Jesus


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The Reformation: 1500-1599

1504 b. Heinrich Bullinger
1507 Luther is ordained as a preist at Erfurt
Henry VIII becomes King of England in 1509
1509 b. John Calvin
1510 Luther sent to Rome on monastic business. He saw the corruption of the church
1513 Leo X becomes Pope
1514 b. John Knox
1515 While teaching on Romans, Luther realizes faith and justification are the work of God
1517 Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the church in Wittenburg. It is the first public act of the Reformation
Zwingli's reform is also underway
1519 Charles V becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
1521 Luther is excommunicated
1525 The Bondage of the Will. Many of the essays, discourses, treatises, conversations, etc. that Luther had over the years are collected in his Table Talk
1529 The Colloquy of Marburg
1531 d. Ulrich Zwingli
c. 1532 or 1533 Calvin's conversion
1534 Henry VIII declares himself "The only supreme head in earth of the Church of England"
1535 Anabaptists take over Muenster
1536 d. Erasmus
1536 Menno Simons rejects Catholicism, becomes an Anabaptist, and helps restore that movement back to pacifism
1536 William Tyndale strangled and burned at the stake. He was the first to translate the Bible into English from the original languages
1536 First edition of Calvin's Institutes
1540 Jesuit order is founded. The Catholic Reformation is under way
c. 1543 Knox converted
1545 The Council of Trent begins
1546 d. Luther
1547 The young Edward VI becomes King of England. The Duke of Somerset acts as regent, and many reforms take place
1549 Consensus Tigurinus brings Zwinglians and Calvinists to agreement about communion
1553 Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) begins her reign
Many protestants who flee Mary's reign are deeply impacted by exposure to a more true reformation on the continent. John Knox is among them
1558 Elizabeth is crowned, the Marian exiles return
1559 Last edition of the Institutes
1559 The Act of Uniformity makes the 1559 Book of Common Prayer the standard in the Church of England and penalizes anyone who fails to use it. It is not reformed enough for the Puritans
1560 b. Jacobus Arminius
Parliament approves the Scot's Confession, penned by the six Johns (including Knox)
1561 d. pacifist Anabaptist leader Menno Simons
1563 The Council of Trent is finished
1564 d. John Calvin
1566 Bullinger writes The Second Helvetic Confession
1567-1568 The Vestments Controversy. Puritans did not want the ceremony and ritual symbolized by the robes of the Church of England
1571 Thirty Nine Articles are finalized
1572 d. John Knox
1572 b. John Donne, devout Anglican minister and poet
1572 Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, the worst persecution of Huguenots
1575 d. Bullinger
1582 The General Assembly in Scotland, with Andrew Melville as moderator, ratifies the "Second Book of Discipline." It has been called the Magna Carta of Presbyterianism
1593 b. George Herbert, Anglican country parson and poet
1596 b. Moses Amyrald, founder of Amyraldianism, which is basically Calvinism minus limited atonement. Amyraldianism became the theology of the School of Saumer in France
1596 b. Descartes, founder of rationalism
1598 Edict of Nantes grants Huguenots greater religious freedom


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The Puritans: 1600-1699

1603 Arminius takes the position that predestination is based on fore-knowledge
1603 James I becomes King
1604 The Puritans meet James at Hampton Court. Their hopes are dashed
1609 d. Jacobus Arminius
1610 b. Brother Lawrence
1610 The Arminians issue the Remonstrance containing 5 articles
1611 The King James Version, the most influential English translation of the Bible
1615 b. Puritan Richard Baxter, author of The Reformed Pastor
1616 b. Puritan John Owen, called the Calvin of England
1618 The Book of Sports is published. It contradicts the Puritan view of the Sabbath, but Puritans are forced to read it
1618-1619 The Synod of Dort is called in the Netherlands to answer the Arminians. The response forms 5 point Calvinism
1620 Plymouth, Massachusetts colony founded by Puritans
1623 b. Blaise Pascal
1623 b. Francis Turretin
1625 Charles I becomes King. He too is against the Puritans
1628 William Laud becomes Bishop of London and steps up oppression of the Puritans
1628 b. Puritan John Bunyan, author of Pilgrim's Progress among many other works of poetry and prose
1629 Charles I dismisses Parliament
1630 John Winthrop and many Puritans migrate to America
1632 b. Locke, founder of empiricism
1633 The Book of Sports is renewed
1636 Harvard founded by Puritans
1638 The National Covenant
1640 Charles I summons Parliament. They curtail his power
1643 The Solemn League and Covenant
1643-1646 The Westminster Assembly
1646 Cromwell's army defeats the King at the Battle of Naseby
1647 George Fox founds the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
1649 Charles I is executed. Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
c. 1650's Brother Lawrence became a monk, and "walk(ed) with God around a kitchen for forty years" (Great Christian Books, 57) But he did it to glorify God
1654 Conversion of Pascal. He started collecting notes for an Apology for the Christian Religion. It was unfinished, but his notes were published posthumously as Pensees
1658 d. Cromwell
1660 Charles II becomes King of England
1661-1663 John Eliot publishes the Bible in Algonkian, a Native American language. Over the course of his life he also helped plant at least 14 Native American churches
1662 d. Pascal
1662 New Act of Uniformity, over two thousand Puritan pastors resign or are forced out
1675 Philip Jacob Spener's Pia Desideria helps begin the pietist movement
Edict of Nantes is revoked, making Protestantism illegal again in France. Many huguenots emigrated, some stayed and met in secret
1685 b. J.S.Bach, called the fifth evangelist
1687 d. Turretin. His Institutes of Elentic Theology were published the next year
1688 William and Mary take the throne. Puritans are free to preach and establish their own churches
1691 d. Brother Lawrence

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